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adherents of mental hygiene and eugenics were preparing their next step, euthanasia. In the U.S.A., Dr. Alexis Carrel, a nobel prize winner who had been on the staff of the Rockefeller Institute since its inception, published his book Man the Unknown in 1935. In it he suggests the removal of the mentally ill and the criminal by small euthanasia institutions equipped with suitable gases. In 1933 the Nazi party rapidly consolidated its power. In June of that year, Minister of the Interior Wilhelm Frick put in motion the passage of the "Law for the Prevention of Hereditary Diseases in Posterity"- the sterilization law. Architect of the law was Ernst Rudin, professor of psychiatry at the Munich University, director of the Kaiser-Wilhelm Institute for Genealog, and of the Research Institute for Psychiatry. A separate legal system was set up consisting of "Hereditary Health Courts", which could decree sterilization against a person's will. By 1935 the "Nuremburg Laws" intended to insure the racial purity of the nation and was aimed specifically at the Jews. In 1934 the Institute for Heredity, Biology and Racial Research was founded at Frankfurt University by professor Ernst Rudin's colleague at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute, Dr. Otmar Freiherr Von Verscheur. Von Verscheur's assistant there was Dr. Joseph Mengele. In England, Dr. Charles Killick Millard, president of the Society of Medical Officers of Health, brought up in 1931 the question of voluntary euthanasia and proposed a suitable law. Later he became fellow founder of the Voluntary Euthanasia Legislation Society. In 1935 Lord Moynihan, president of the Royal College of Surgeons, founded the Euthanasia Society . Sterilization and euthanasia were not the ideas of the Nazis and never had been. They were ideas which were supported and promoted throughout the world by groups with an interest in the development of mental hygiene. Germany, however, was the only country in which the political climate allowed materialization of the final goal of sterilization and euthanasia. There is not a great deal known about "T4" compared to other aspects of Nazi Germany. T4 was the Fuhrer Chancellery and the initials came from the full address which was Tiergartenstrasse 4, Berlin. "Project T4" was fully integrated into the organizational structure of the Reich and fell under section 11b. ("mercy-death") of the Chancellery of the Fuhrer. Four cover organizations safeguarded the project T4: the Realms Work Committee in charge of collecting information on candidates for euthanasia from questionnaires sent to hospitals, the Realms Committee for Scientific Approach to Severe Illness Due to Heredity set up exclusively to apply euthanasia to children, the charitable company for the transport of the sick which transported patients to the killing centers, and the Charitable Foundation for Institutional Care, in charge of final disposition of the victims' remains. At the time the questionnaires went out a number of mental hospitals were being converted for use as killing centers and schools for murder. Death chambers were built disguised as shower-baths
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and crematoriums, which were identical to those later to be established in the death camps in Poland. Schooling of the personnel at Hadamar Mental Institution produced perfect murderers who were used to the smell of burnt flesh, had been taught to trick people being led to their death and to steel themselves against the crying and pleading of the victims. On arrival, the victims were stripped, dressed in paper shirts and forthwith taken to a gas chamber where they were murdered with hydrocyanic acid gas, and the bodies moved to crematoriums by conveyer belts, six bodies to a furnace. The psychiatrist in charge at Hadamar was Dr. Adolf Wahlmann, an active member of the German Mental Hygiene Movement. After the state had been relieved of the burden of these undesireables, the operation, still under the direction of eminent mental health psychiatrists in T4, was expanded under the code of 14F13. From being limited to mental hospitals and institutions, it now embraced German and Austrian inmates and Jews in concentration camps who were sick or invalid. At Dachau at the end of 1941 a commission composed of 4 psychiatrists under professor Dr. Werner Heyde, SS Standartenfuhrer and lecturer in neurology and psychiatry at Wurzburg University, arrived at the camp and selected hundred of patients incapable of work who were transported to the gas chambers and disposed of. The extermination camps had followed a separate evolution from the concentration camps that were opened a few months after the Nazi rise to power. These death camps had their headquarters, not in Himmler's SS organization, but in the Fuhrer's Chancellory (T4). Franz Stangl (Austrian Gestapo) said at the Nuremberg trials that his progression to builder and commander of the Sobibor Extermination Camp went through the Hartheim and Bernberg euthanasia centers. The original staff at Sobibor was taken from Hartheim. During the war eugenics became associated with the Nazis and afterwards a global whitewashing began. The first step was the reconstitution of the many National Councils of Mental Hygiene. The first was the British Association for Mental Health. Lady Prescilla Norman, wife of Montagu Norman, governor of the Bank of England, had been working in the mental hygiene movement since the 20's. In 1944 they sponsored a congress held at the Ministry of Health in London where they established the World Federation of Mental Health-WFMH. The first elected president of the WFMH was Dr. John Rawlings Rees, a British psychiatrist associated with the Tavistock Institute. In 1948 the WFMH was formally inaugurated at the Third International Congress of Mental Health. A vice-president of the Congress was Dr. Carl G. Jung who was described by fellow vice-president Dr. Conti as "representing German psychiatry under the Nazis". Dr. Jung had been co-editor of the Journal for Psychotherapy with Dr. M. H. Goering, the cousin of Marshal Hermann Goering."